Free Pediatric Board Review Questions and Answers

Pediatric Board Review Questions and Answers

Every month we will upload new free pediatric board review questions and answers (Q&A).


1. Match each number (GI disorder) to its corresponding diagnostic test on the right.

1)  Presence of chronic inflammation

2)  Pernicious anemia

3)  Carbohydrate absorption

4)  Integrity of intestinal lymphatic system

D-xylose absorption study (B) Elevated ESR
(D) Stool pH

2. An 18-hour-old infant has bilious stained emesis following 3 initial feedings. The prenatal and delivery history are unremarkable. On physical exam, the infant is quiet. The occasional peristaltic waves are noted and the abdomen is not distended. Which of the following findings is MOST likely on further radiologic evaluation of this infant?

A)  GE reflux

B)  Pyloric hypertrophy

C)  A “double bubble” sign

D)  Malrotation

E)  A choledochal duct cyst

3. Which of the following can be seen with “irritable bowel syndrome”?

A)  Persistent vomiting

B)  Recurrent diarrhea

C)  Short stature

D)  The absence of pain

E)  Hematochezia 





1) B

2) C

3) D

4) A

An elevated ESR would correspond to the presence of chronic inflammation. Pernicious anemia could be seen on a routine CBC as macrocytic anemia. 
Abnormalities of carbohydrate absorption could be assessed by measuring stool pH. 
Disorders caused by disruption of the integrity of the intestinal lymphatic system could be diagnosed with a D-xylose absorption study.


C) The combination of bilious vomiting on all initial feedings along with a non-distended abdomen would suggest an upper GI obstruction distal to the pylorus. The double bubble sign would correspond with duodenal atresia and is the most likely diagnostic finding.


B) Irritable bowel syndrome is often precipitated by stress, resulting in recurrent diarrhea as well as crampy abdominal pain. Short stature is not part of the picture. While the presence of mucus in the stool is typical, hematochezia is not.